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奥古斯都之昔兰尼加行省铭文及元老院令【BC6-4】[中英对照] PART A(20040719)

[日期: 2004-05-12 ] 来源: 中国世界古代史研究网   作者: AMENHOTP [字体: ]
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来自英文网页:http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/medieval/augustus_001.htm

Edicts of Augustus and Decree of the Senate
on the Judicial Process in Cyrene(6-4 B.C.)
公元前4年 关于审判程序的奥古斯都皇帝敕令
及元老院法令,发现于昔兰尼


FORWARD
In these edicts Augustus regulates the senatorial province of Cyrene, providing for mixed courts in the province, pronounces judgment on three citizens sent to him for a hearing, refuses immunity to Greeks of the province who obtain Roman citizenship unless the privilege is stated expressly in the grant, prescribes the nature of the court to try disputes of Greek residents, and with the Senate establishes a new procedure for the trial of provincial governors. The inscription was found in 1926 at Cyrene, Libya, Africa.
前言:
在下列敕令中,奥古斯都对元老院管辖的行省昔兰尼加施加干预,在行省中设立了混合法庭;对于送往御前钦听的3位公民作出了判决;除非在授予公民权时特意申明的,终止该行省的希腊人获得罗马公民权后的免税权;对于审理希腊居民之间争端的法庭组成作了指示;而元老院也创立了一套新的规程用于行省总督的审判程序。该铭文是1926年在非洲利比亚的昔兰尼地方发现的。
[字母言:原英文网页记此铭文年在BC64年,当年奥古斯都未生,有误。考下文提到敕令发布之年,奥古斯都第17次执掌保民官权利。按BC23年,奥古斯都与元老院签署第二次协议,此后年年执掌保民官权利,以BC23年为始,则第17次为BC7年或6年;又,元老院法令,提到当年执政官,名Gaius Calvisius Sabinus及Lucius Passienus Rufus者,查执政官表,系年在BC4年。则前4次敕令与法令之发布不在一年也。至第5敕令,奥古斯都为推行元老院令则其年在BC4年矣。故5篇敕令及一篇元老院法令,时间跨度在BC6-4年,而非英文题首之BC64年,显为排版错误]

EDICTS OF AUGUSTUS AND DECREE OF THE SENATE ON THE JUDICIAL PROCESS IN CYRENE

I

Emporer Caesar Augustus, pontifex maximus, holding the tribunician power for the seventeenth time, saluted imperator for the fourteenth time, proclaims:

[第一敕令]最高大祭司,荣获英帕拉多称号14次,恺撒·奥古斯都皇帝,于其第17次执掌保民官权利之年,诏告曰:

Since I find that in the province of Cyrene there are altogether 215 Roman citizens of every age whose census rating is 2,500 denarii or more, and that the jurors are drawn from this number in which several cliques are known to exist, and since the delegations coming from the cities of the province have complained that these cliques are unfair to Greeks in capital crimes, when the same people act as prosecutors and as witnesses for each other in turn, and since I myself have learned that some innocent persons have been overwhelmed in this way and have suffered the death penalty, until the Senate decides on this point or I myself find some better remedy, it appears to me that the governors of Crete and Cyrene will do wisely and fittingly, if they appoint in the province of Cyrene an equal number of jurors from both Greeks and Romans of greatest wealth and not less than twenty-five years of age, having a census rating and property of not less than 7,500 denarii, if a sufficient number of such men can be found, or, if the number of jurors to be placed on the album cannot be provided in this way, they shall post as jurors citizens who have the half of this amount of wealth and not less than half to sit on capital cases involving Greeks.

盖因吾发现在昔兰尼加行省人口普查中资财达到或超过2,500迪纳里乌斯的罗马公民共计215人。人所共知,彼等朋比结党,而陪审团人选从自彼等中选拔。据该行省众城市代表控诉,彼等朋党于事涉希腊人之死罪审判中执法不公,一人而身兼原告及证人。吾人另有所知,无辜之人身受不当之惩罚,甚至或有遭处死者。除非元老院就此事作出决定或吾人另有弥补之法令,依吾所见,克里特及昔兰尼之总督如依下列办法行事,将是明智而妥当的:在昔兰尼加行省中的希腊人和罗马人两方推选最为富有之人,其年龄应不低于25岁,人口普查之财产应不低于7,500迪纳里乌斯。如此等条件之人士不能觅得,或在册之陪审团候选人不能依此条件提供,则由财产为此值半数或不少于其半之人在事涉希腊人的死刑审判案中列于陪审席上。

If a Greek is brought to trial, he shall have the right, on the day before his accuser speaks, to determine whether he wishes his jury to be all Roman or half Greek. If he chooses the latter, then an equal number of balls shall be assigned to each Greek and Roman and their names shall be written on them. The names of the Romans shall be drawn by lot from one urn, and those of the Greeks from the other, until a panel of twenty-five is drawn from each group. The prosecutor, if he wishes, may reject one from each group; the defendant may reject three in all, provided that he does not reject all Roman or all Greek. Then the remainder shall be set aside for jury duty. They shall be separated for voting and shall cast their votes separately, the Romans in one urn, the Greeks in another. Then, when the votes are counted separately, whatever the majority declare the governor publicly shall pronounce as the verdict. Since for the most part relatives of the deceased do not suffer an unjust death to remain unavenged and since it is un1ikely that Greek accusers for relatives or fellow citizens who have been slain will be lacking in exacting punishment from the accused, it appears to me that the governors of Crete and Cyrene will do rightly and properly, if they do not permit in the province of Cyrene a Roman to accuse a Greek for the murder of a Greek man or woman, unless some Greek who has been granted Roman citizenship brings an action for the death of some kinsman or fellow citizen.

若有某个希腊人面临审判,此人当享有如下权利。原告发言日之前一日,其人应决定是否希望其陪审团全由罗马人组成或其中有半数之希腊人。如选择后者,则将同等数量之小球分与希腊人和罗马人,书其姓名于上。罗马人陪审团人员之姓名当自一瓮中抽出,希腊人则自另一瓮中抽取,如此直至两方各选取25的陪审团员。假如原告愿意,可自两边各拒绝一人做陪审员;而被告则总共可拒绝3人,但不能俱为罗马人或希腊人。尔后其余人等可执行其陪审职责。陪审团应分开投票、计票,罗马人投票于一个瓮中,希腊人则于另一瓮中。当两方计票完毕,不论多数人(意见)如何,省督应当众宣布,作为陪审团的裁决。有鉴于逝者之亲族不会坐视其死于非命而不报仇雪恨;而亲族或同胞公民被杀之希腊人原告对被告不要求严厉的惩戒亦不太可能,依吾所见,克里特及昔兰尼之总督如依下列办法行事,将是公正而得体的:在昔兰尼加行省中,除非某个获得罗马公民权的希腊人为其亲族或同胞公民之死提请诉讼而外,不允许罗马人因希腊男人或女人之被杀而起诉希腊人。

II

Emperor Caesar Augustus, pontifex maximus, holding tribunician power for the seventeenth time, proclaims: Pub1ius Sextius Scaeva must not be subjected to censorous abuse, since from the province of Cyrene, he provided that Aulus Stlaccius Maximus, son of Lucius, Lucius Stlaccius Macedo, son of Lucius, and Publius Lacutanius Phileros, freedman of Publius, should be sent to me under bonds, when these persons declared that they knew something pertaining not only to my safety, but also to the public interest, and that they wished to give this information. In this matter Sextius has acted properly and with care. However, since they know nothing that concerns me or the public interest and have openly admitted that they were deceived and deluded when they made their statements in the province, I have freed and dismissed them from custody. But since envoys from Cyrene accuse Aulus Stlaccius Maximus of having removed statues from public places, among them one on whose base the city has inscribed my name, I forbid him to leave Rome without my permission, until I make a decision on this matter.

[第二敕令]最高大祭司,恺撒·奥古斯都皇帝,于其第17次执掌保民官权利之年,诏告曰:
普布利乌斯·塞克斯提乌斯·斯柴瓦不应受到过度毁谤。自昔兰尼加行省,彼派遣鲁奇乌斯之子,奥鲁斯·斯特拉克奇乌斯·马克希姆斯、鲁奇乌斯之子,奥鲁斯·斯特拉克奇乌斯·马采多,以及普布利乌斯的获释奴普布利乌斯·拉库塔尼乌斯·费莱罗斯,因其人宣称得悉某种不仅有关吾人之安全并且关乎公众利益之事并意欲禀告,(塞克斯提乌斯)特将此三人批镣带铐送至吾前。关于此事塞克斯提乌斯之处置谨慎而得体。唯彼等对有关吾人或公众利益之事一无所知,复次,彼等公开承认在行省做上述之声明时乃遭人欺骗与蛊惑,吾将其此三人自羁押中释放,任其离开。然昔兰尼城之使者指控奥鲁斯·斯特拉克奇乌斯·马克希姆斯在行省于公共场所移动雕像时含有该城铭刻吾姓名之雕像一座,吾禁止该人在吾对此事做出决定前擅离罗马。
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